Frequently Asked Questions

Below is a list of answers to frequently asked questions

General Questions

How do I reach a sales person who can help me?

You can select an LV office near you or fill out our contact form

I want to schedule a pick up. Who do I contact?

Please contact your nearest LV office or fill out our contact form

We are a supplier and our customer requires us to use LV Shipping. How should we proceed?

 Please contact your nearest LV office or fill out our contact form

 

 

Incoterms

International Commerce Terms (Incoterms) are an internationally recognised standard trade terms that set out buyer and seller responsibilities. Incoterms are maintained and developed by the International Chambers of Commerce (ICC).

 Each Incoterm establishes who is responsible for costs and risks such as transport costs, insurance, duties payable and customs clearance. Incoterms are accepted by governments, legal authorities and businesses worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. This reduces or removes uncertainties and often costly misunderstandings arising from different interpretation of such terms in different countries. Incoterms apply to both domestic and international sale contracts.

Before you use Incoterms, consider the country of the buyer. Some countries stipulate that set Incoterms are used, while others set chosen Incoterms as standard practice. Transport may also affect your choice as some Incoterms can only be used for transport by sea and inland waterways.

Any mode of transport:

CIP - Carriage and Insurance Paid

CPT - Carriage Paid To DAP - Delivered At Place

DAT - Delivered At Terminal

DDP - Delivered Duty Paid

EXW - Ex Works

FCA - Free Carrier

 

Sea and inland waterway transport (only):

CFR - Cost and Freight

CIF - Cost, Insurance and Freight

FAS - Free Alongside Ship

FOB - Free On Board.  

 

CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To)

This term is primarily used for multimodal transport. Because it relies on the carrier's insurance, the shipper/seller is only required to purchase minimum coverage. When this particular agreement is in force, Freight Forwarders often act in effect, as carriers. The buyer's insurance is effective when the goods are turned over to the Forwarder.

CPT (Carriage Paid To)

 In CPT transactions the shipper/seller has the same obligations found with CIF, with the addition that the seller has to buy cargo insurance, naming the buyer as the insured while the goods are in transit.  

DAP (Delivered At Place)

DAP term is used for any type of shipments. The shipper/seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer.  

DAT (Delivered At Terminal)

This term is used for any type of shipments. The shipper/seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal.  

DDP (Delivered Duty Paid)

DDP term tend to be used in intermodal or courier-type shipments. Whereby, the shipper/seller is responsible for dealing with all the tasks involved in moving goods from the manufacturing plant to the buyer/consignee's door. It is the shipper/seller's responsibility to insure the goods and absorb all costs and risks including the payment of duty and fees.    

EXW (EX-Works)

One of the simplest and most basic shipment arrangements places the minimum responsibility on the seller with greater responsibility on the buyer. In an EX-Works transaction, goods are basically made available for pickup at the shipper/seller's factory or warehouse and "delivery" is accomplished when the merchandise is released to the consignee's freight forwarder. The buyer is responsible for making arrangements with their forwarder for insurance, export clearance and handling all other paperwork.  

FCA (Free Carrier)

In this type of transaction, the seller is responsible for arranging transportation, but he is acting at the risk and the expense of the buyer. Where in FOB the freight forwarder or carrier is the choice of the buyer, in FCA the seller chooses and works with the freight forwarder or the carrier. "Delivery" is accomplished at a predetermined port or destination point and the buyer is responsible for Insurance.  

CFR (Cost and Freight)

This term formerly known as CNF (C&F) defines two distinct and separate responsibilities-one is dealing with the actual cost of merchandise "C" and the other "F" refers to the freight charges to a predetermined destination point. It is the shipper/seller's responsibility to get goods from their door to the port of destination. "Delivery" is accomplished at this time. It is the buyer's responsibility to cover insurance from the port of origin or port of shipment to buyer's door. Given that the shipper is responsible for transportation, the shipper also chooses the forwarder.

CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight)

This arrangement similar to CFR, but instead of the buyer insuring the goods for the maritime phase of the voyage, the shipper/seller will insure the merchandise. In this arrangement, the seller usually chooses the forwarder. "Delivery" as above, is accomplished at the port of destination.

FAS (Free Alongside Ship)*

In these transactions, the buyer bears all the transportation costs and the risk of loss of goods. FAS requires the shipper/seller to clear goods for export, which is a reversal from past practices. Companies selling on these terms will ordinarily use their freight forwarder to clear the goods for export. "Delivery" is accomplished when the goods are turned over to the Buyers Forwarder for insurance and transportation.

FOB (Free On Board)

One of the most commonly used-and misused-terms, FOB means that the shipper/seller uses his freight forwarder to move the merchandise to the port or designated point of origin. Though frequently used to describe inland movement of cargo, FOB specifically refers to ocean or inland waterway transportation of goods. "Delivery" is accomplished when the shipper/seller releases the goods to the buyer's forwarder. The buyer's responsibility for insurance and transportation begins at the same moment.

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